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School Based Management : Definition, Concepts, and Functions

Infodasar.com-Before turning to this discussion, the author first explains the understanding of school management to help us understand the concept of school-based management as a whole and well.

Definition of School-Based Management

The word management means, governance, management, in the Indonesian National Encyclopedia, this word is defined as the process of planning and decision making, organizing, leading and controlling human, financial, physical and information resources to achieve organizational goals by means or processes that are efficient and effective where the implementation of certain objectives is held and supervised. Management also means the skills and abilities to get results through activities with others to achieve the goals set. The word-based is the basic word from the word base which means base, basis or basis. While schools are one of the most important human institutions where teaching and learning take place. This institution teaches students to read, write, and other basic skills needed in daily life.
School Based Management

Thus it can be stressed that school-based management is a process carried out on how to plan, make decisions, manage, control human resources effectively and efficiently through others or together with others to achieve the educational goals set at school institutions. There are several terms related to school-based management, namely; school-based management or decision making and school-based management. This term first appeared in the United States when people began to question the relevance of education to the demands and development of local communities.
In the Republic of Indonesia Law No. 20 of 2003 concerning the National Education System of Indonesia article 4 paragraph 6 states that education is carried out by empowering all components of society through participation in the administration and quality control of education services. Thus it can be understood that education is the responsibility of all elements of society.
In the SBM system, schools are required to independently explore, allocate, set priorities, control and explain the empowerment of resources, both to the community and government. Empirical evidence of the weakness of the old pattern of management of national education and the implementation of regional autonomy, then as a logical consequence for management of education in Indonesia is the need to adapt from the old pattern of management of education to a new pattern of education. future management of education that is autonomous and more democratic.
The professionalism approach takes precedence over the bureaucratic approach, the school management is more decentralized, school change is driven more by school self-motivation than is regulated from outside the school, education rules are simpler, the role of the center shifts from controlling to influence and from directing to facilitating.
Autonomy can be interpreted as authority/independence, namely independence in regulating and managing oneself and being independent/independent. The term autonomy is also the same as the term "independent", for example, self-sufficiency, self-management, self-financing, entrepreneurship. So school autonomy is the authority of schools to regulate and manage the interests of school dwellers in accordance with their own initiatives based on the aspirations of school dwellers in accordance with applicable national education laws and regulations. Of course the independence referred to must be supported by a number of abilities, namely the ability to make the best decisions, the ability to democratize / appreciate differences of opinion, the ability to mobilize resources, the ability to choose the best way to implement, the ability to communicate effectively, the ability to solve school problems, adaptive and anticipatory abilities, the ability to synergize and collaborate, and the ability to meet their own needs.

School-Based Management Concepts

The basic concept of school management is to shift decision making from the central/regional/ district office to the school level, whereby transferring decision-making authority to the school level, schools are expected to be more independent and able to determine the direction of development in accordance with the conditions and demands of the community's environment, in words Other schools must be able to develop programs that are relevant to the needs of the community.
In addition, with the availability of relevant school programs, it is hoped that schools will be able to explore community participation to participate in school development so that the community has a sense of ownership of the school. School-based education management is a new alternative in education management that emphasizes more independence and creativity. And indicators of MPBS success have the potential to increase community participation, equity, efficiency, and management, based at the school level.
In the framework of implementing school management, there are a number of things that need attention:
1. Schools are required to be able to display resource management in a transparent, democratic manner, without monopoly and responsibility towards the community and government.
2. The role of the government in formulating education policies which are a national priority and formulating the implementation of SBM. But schools describe it in accordance with the potential and the school environment.
3. Need to form a school board.
4. SBM demands changes in the behavior of school principals, teachers and school administrators, teachers and administrative staff to be more professional and managerial in school operations.
5. In enhancing professionalism and management skills related to SBM training needs to be held in the context of professional development and correcting SBM.
6. The effectiveness of SBM can be seen as an indicator of the extent to which schools can optimize the performance of school organizations, the learning process, human resource management, and administration.
Noteworthy also in the application of school-based management is the management of the school component itself, namely; curriculum and teaching programs, education personnel, students, finance, education facilities and infrastructure, school and community relations management, and special service management of educational institutions.
Likewise in the application of school basic management (SBM), there are several requirements that must be met, including:
1. Similarity in perception
2. Clarity of wisdom corridors
3. Change the pattern of sub-ordination relationships into partnerships
4. Changes in attitude and behavior
5. Deregulation
6. Transparency and accountability.
From the above explanation, it is clear that school-based management will bring new dynamics in school management that are significantly different from the old centralized pattern.
School-Based Management is a translation of School-Based Management (SBM) is a political approach that aims to design school management with the strength of the principal and increase community participation in efforts to improve school performance that includes teachers, parents, and students of the community. SBM changed the decision-making system by transferring authority in decision making from management to each stakeholder group at the local level.
Participatory decision making is a way to make decisions through the creation of an open and democratic environment, where school members (teachers, students, employees, parents, community leaders) are encouraged to be directly involved in the decision making the process that can contribute to the achievement of school goals. This is based on the belief that if someone is involved (participates) in making decisions, then the person concerned will have a sense of ownership of the decision so that the person concerned will also be fully responsible and dedicated to achieving school goals. In short: the greater the level of participation, the greater the sense of ownership: the greater the sense of ownership, the greater the sense of responsibility: and the greater the sense of responsibility, the greater the dedication.
With the explanation above, schools have greater authority (independence) in managing their schools (setting) quality improvement targets, preparing quality improvement plans, implementing quality improvement plans, and evaluating the implementation of quality improvement) and group participation with an interest in school. So, the school is the main unit of management of the education process, while the units above it (the district/city education office, the provincial education office) are the support and service units of the school, specifically in managing quality improvement. With the concept of SBM, it is hoped that schools can make continuous improvements that are of high quality and have independence so that they are more accountable.
The SBM concept paradigm has a multidimensional view, both in terms of the political, educational, administrative and financial dimensions. Viewed from the political dimension, the concept of SBM has 4 aspects, namely:
1. The embodiment of social value
2. The source of political power
3. Rising strength testing
4. Political weapons.
SBM in many ways has a positive influence on
1. Improving and improving education
2. Efficiency
3. Achieving political goals
4. Creating justice and equality to obtain education
Indonesia as a plural country needs to take into account various variables in the application of the concept of SBM so that its implementation achieves the desired efficiency and effectiveness.

School-Based Management Functions

Issuance of Law No. 20 of 2003 concerning the National Education System increasingly clarifies the legal basis for a decentralized management function. Starting from all the rules and regulations related to the implementation of school autonomy, you are expected to clearly identify the tasks and functions of the school in the current era of autonomy. Wohlstetter and Mohrman, et al. (1997) suggested that there were four important things that were centralized or the authority given to schools. First, the power (power) to make decisions. Second, knowledge and skills, including making good decisions and managing them professionally. Third, the information needed by schools to make decisions, initially the information must be sent to the center for decision making at the central level, now the school collects information mainly for consideration in the management of the school concerned. Fourth, awards for achievement, which must be handled by each school.
School-Based Management (SBM) functions to improve the efficiency, quality, and equality of education. Efficiency improvements are obtained through the freedom to manage resources, community participation, and simplification of bureaucracy. While improving quality can be obtained through parental participation in schools, flexibility in managing schools and classrooms, increasing the professionalism of teachers and principals, as well as the implementation of an incentive and disincentive system. While the increase in equity is obtained through increased public participation which allows the government to concentrate more on certain groups.
Thus it can be concluded that the purpose of implementing school-based management is to provide a better and more adequate education for students, where autonomy in education management is the potential for schools to improve staff performance, offer direct participation to related groups, and increase understanding society about education.
The function of decentralized management according to Law No. 20 of 2003, Law No. 14 of 2005, and regulations are:

Planning and Evaluation

In this case, the school is given the authority to plan according to needs, for example, to improve the quality of schools. Then the school needs to do an analysis of the quality needs that are the basis for making plans. Besides being given the authority to make plans, they are also given the authority to evaluate it internally (self-evaluation).

Curriculum Development

The education unit can fully develop the curriculum by referring to the curriculum set by the central government. So the school has the authority to develop the curriculum in accordance with the needs and abilities. Developing what is meant is to be able to deepen, enrich and modify the curriculum, but may not reduce the contents of the curriculum that applies nationally.

Learning Process Management

In PBM the school is given the freedom to choose the most effective learning strategies, methods, and techniques according to the characteristics, both students, teachers, media or facilities available. In order for learning to be more effective and produce high achievements, the learning process must be regulated based on school needs. In other words, the curriculum should not be encumbered by other material that is not relevant to improving students' knowledge and skills. Because the teaching and learning process is student empowerment, it is open only to the emphasis on mastering knowledge but also to internalize something that is taught so that it is embedded and functions as a charge of conscience and internalized and applied.

Workforce Management

The authority of schools to manage employment is limited in the context of SBM, these limits are limited to managing the use of energy that has been raised by the government. Honorary staff incentives can mostly be paid through BOS funds or school committees. Educational units that work together with other parties can take human resources from outside because of limited resources needed or the government may not appoint them because of the nature of their expertise.

School Facilities Management

Schools are institutions that are most aware of the need for facilities that are closely related to the continuity of the teaching and learning process, and therefore the management of school facilities must be carried out by schools ranging from procurement, maintenance, and repair to construction. However, Government Regulation No. 19. 2005 concerning National Education Standards chapter VII chapters 42 to 49 explains that in the field of authority the facilities and infrastructure for schools there are limits based on the minimum criteria that must be possessed by schools.

Financial management

School authorities in the management of the financial sector are legally in accordance with the concept of SBM, especially state schools. This is related to the education fund allocated 20% for education costs in addition to teacher salaries from the state budget and regional budget. One reality that has occurred in funding is the existence of BOS (School Operational Assistance). With BOS funds, schools can develop education management in education units, although on the one hand the policy is still felt unfair, especially for schools with a small number of students. However, education providers can manage funds with applicable provisions to innovate the allocation of funding sources not only from the government but can together with school committees to collect funds from the public, business and industry.

Student services

Regarding decentralized student services including the admission of new students, development/coaching/ coaching, placement to continue school or enter the workforce to alumni management. In student management the principal has the task of selecting new students, organizing learning, controlling student attendance, conducting academic/vocational competency tests, carrying out career guidance and tracking graduates.

School and Community Relations

Moral and financial support is at the core of the relationship between the school and the community as well as increasing community involvement, care, ownership and support. The relationship between the school and the community means that the relationship between the school community is a process of communication between the school and the community with the aim of the community knowing the need for education and training and supporting intelligence and working together in improving schools.
As according to Elsbree (1965) that the relationship between school and society has a goal:
a. Improve the quality of learning and growth of children.
b. Improve community goals and improve the quality of people's lives.
c. Develop enthusiasm in helping school relations activities with the community around the school.
The relationship between schools and the community will run well if there is agreement on the direction of policies (policies), planning (planning), programs and strategies for implementing education in schools. In connection with different conditions in community thinking, schools must create programs that can accommodate aspirations by forming public opinion, which is an opinion that results from the integration of various opinions in the community so that a complete understanding is formed.

School Climate

In order for an effective teaching and learning process to occur, the main prerequisite is a conducive-academic, physical and non-physical school climate. In other words creating an atmosphere of a safe and orderly school environment, optimism and high expectations of the school community, and supporting school health and student-centered activities.
Along with the development of the world of management, science has developed as a phenomenon of modern life that accompanies the presence of various organizations in society. This is intended for the management of human activities in fulfilling shared life. Cooperative behavior as something that is natural based on the principle of monotheism, caliph and trust.
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