Acne may be mild (some, occasional acne), moderate (inflammatory papules), or severe (nodules and cysts). Treatment depends on the severity of the condition.
Causes of AcneAcne is essentially a condition of the hormone that is driven by the male and ' androgenic ' hormones, which typically become active during adolescence. Sensitivity to such hormones, combined with bacteria in the skin, and fatty acids in the oil gland, causing acne. Common sites for acne are the face, chest, shoulders, and back-site oil glands.
The acne parts include blackheads, blackheads, small bumps, and nodules and cysts. Although acne is essentially a normal physiological occurrence, certain conditions may exacerbate the condition, including:
- Hormone levels fluctuate around menstrual periods (women)
- Manipulating (picking/pushing) acne lesions
- Clothes (e.g., hats and sports helmets) and headgear
How to treat AcneOnly three types of drugs are proven effective for the treatment of acne i.e. antibiotics, benzoyl peroxide, and retinoids. Most people need at least one or two agents, depending on the severity of their acne.
Benzoyl peroxide, available as a freely sold product (e.g., Clearasil, Stridex) and with a doctor's prescription (e.g., Benoxyl, PanOxyl, Persagel), targets surface bacteria, which often worsen acne. Irritation (dryness) is a common side effect.
Retinoid (A derivative of vitamin A), for example, Differin, Retin-A, Tazorac, treating blackheads and blackheads, the first lesions of acne. The most common side effects are irritation. Although most are just prescriptions, there are Differin versions that are freely sold available.
Antibiotics, either applied to the skin (clindamycin, erythromycin) or taken orally (tetracycline and its derivatives, Trimetoprim-sulfametoksazol) control the surface bacteria and reduce inflammation of the skin. Antibiotics are more effective when combined with benzoyl peroxide or retinoid. Isotretinoin Oral retinoids (Absorica, Amnesty, Claravis, Myorisan, and Zenatane) are reserved for people with severe diseases (nodular or cystic).
Isotretinoin shrinks the size of the oil gland, the anatomical origin of acne. Without active and obese oil glands, acne is actively reduced. Side effects can include dry skin, increased cholesterol and triglycerides, and birth defects. Women of childbearing age should practice contraception before, during, and after treatment (about a month) with Isotretinoin. The use of isotretinoin requires rigorous testing (cholesterol, pregnancy, triglycerides, cholesterol, liver function and bone marrow function) and follow up for a prescribed period (5 months or more). This is reserved for the most severe types of acne that do not respond to other treatments.
Hormone therapy may be beneficial for some women with acne, especially for those who have signs and symptoms (irregular periods, thinning hair) from androgens (male hormones) over. Hormone therapy is made up of low-dose estrogen and progesterone (birth CONTROL pills) or anti-androgen medication (Spironolakton).
How to Prevent AcneTo prevent acne and reduce damage to your skin, follow these tips.
Choose a cleanser specially formulated for acne. These products often contain salicylic acid or benzoyl peroxide, which helps clean acne wounds.
Gently cleanse your face, because trauma to acne can exacerbate acne or cause scarring. When washing the face, use a hand or cotton, because the terry cloth or other rubbing material can cause a breakage acne wound.
If you need to use a moisturizer, use a mild and noncomedogenic moisturizer, which does not worsen acne.
If you're a woman, use an oil-free foundation. Thick facial makeup or other cosmetic products that clog pores can cause acne breakouts.