Definition Of Public Health
The definition of public health according to Winslow (1920) is the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life, and improving health, through the efforts to govern the community. Public health is a multi-disciplinary science because it is essentially a public health problem that is multi-disciplinary, so that settlement or problem solving is done multidisciplinary. Public health is a series of the long history of human life and its environment, where developments around the world are related to each other. There is historical momentum in public health development which is an early milestone of the development of science and technology of public health today. The health history of the community in developed countries has a role in the development of science and technology of public health in developing countries.
History of Community Health Development in Developed Countries
The history of public health development, not only began in the emergence of science but already started before the development of modern science. Of the most widespread cultures, namely Babylon, Egypt, Greece, and Rome have been noted that humans have made efforts to address public health problems and diseases. It has also been found that at the time noted written documents, even written regulations governing the disposal of wastewater or municipal drainage of urban development, drinking water regulations, and so on.
At this time the record is also obtained that the general latrines disposal facility has been constructed, although the reason for making the latrines is not due to health. The construction of the latrines is generally not because the stool or human stool can transmit the disease but the stool causes unpleasant odour and unsightly views. Likewise, the public made a well at that time on the grounds that drinking water flowing dirty feel bad, not because drinking water can cause illness (Greene, 1984).
From other documents noted that in ancient Roman times issued regulations that oblige people to record the construction of houses, reported the existence of dangerous animals, and pets that cause odour, and so on. Even at that time, the Government had to supervise or review the place for drinks (general bar), food stalls, brothels and so on (Hanlon, 1974).
From the above note, it can be seen that public health problems especially the spread of infectious diseases have been so widespread and devastating, but efforts to resolve public health problems as a whole have not been conducted by People in their day.
Some problems occur in relation to policies, mindset, national boundaries and interest in public health history, including:
- Community and country
Countries and communities are not interchangeable terms. However, countries related to the population will have different policies related to public health relations in the group of citizens, the rational and critically related discussions are almost the same.
- Diversity of countries
When all considerations are widely accepted and have become the agenda of State responsibility, not all countries react to it. The public health approach is still at the local level, whose responsibilities and jurisdiction are sometimes unclear and overlapping. But the country itself became a unit formed to tackle worldwide problems, not only in matters relating to humans.
- Country of destination
If health is now regarded as a matter of individual biological autonomy, which has just become the goal of a public health program, health usually means channelling the needs of workers and soldiers, controlling the number of populations, protecting Certain groups of elites, improving genetic reserves within the population and stabilizing the environment.
In an effort to overcome epidemic and endemic diseases, the community has begun to pay attention to environmental issues, especially hygiene and environmental sanitation. The disposal of human waste (Jamban), exploitation of clean drinking water, disposal of garbage, household ventilation has been recorded as part of society's life at the time.
Decades after World War II brought a marked change of value with a focus on public health and community expectations. In developed countries, infectious diseases that have long been the main focus of public health have decreased, with polio being the last of a surprising epidemic, which is able to reduce victims through immunization administration, antibiotics or epidemiological or environmental Control (Rogers 1990). The period of modern epidemiologic developments began in the 1950s with advanced studies of doctors in the UK to demonstrate a strong connection between smoking and the development of lung cancer.
With the conquest of fascism and the collapse of communism, liberalism reappeared. This is symbolized by the World Health Organization (WHO) statement that health and welfare are the human rights of all human beings (WHO 1968). It is a duty for the state to grant these rights to their citizens. In some cases, conflicts between public health as a necessity and civil rights reappear. This remains the most severe problem that public health should face. The emergence of science in the late 18th and early 19th centuries had an extensive impact on all aspects of human life, including health. If in previous centuries of health problems, especially the disease, only seen as biological phenomena and approaches adopted only a narrow biologically, then, in the 19th century, health problems were a complex problem. Therefore, the approach to health problems should be done comprehensively, multisectoral and, in addition, in this age of science, various causes of disease and vaccines have also been found as a prevention of disease. Louis Pasteur had found a vaccine to prevent smallpox, Joseph Lister found a carbolic acid to sterilized the operating room and William Marton found ether as an anaesthetic during surgery.
Scientific research and public health efforts began in 1832 in the UK. At that time, most of the British citizens were exposed to epidemics (epidemic) cholera, especially in people living in poor urban areas. Later, the British Parliament formed a commission for the investigation and management of this cholera outbreak problem.
Edwin Chadwich, a social scientist as Chairman of the Commission, finally reported the results of his research as follows: People are living in poor sanitation conditions, wells of people close to the flow of dirty water and disposal of human waste. The waste flowing is opened irregularly, the food sold in the market is full of flies and roaches. In addition, the majority of poor people work an average of 14 hours per day, with a salary under the cost of living. So some people are not able to buy nutritious food.
The Chadwich report comes with good and valid statistical data analysis. According to the Chadwich research report, the parliament finally passed legislation governing efforts to improve population health, including environmental sanitation, workplace sanitation, factories, etc. In 1848, John Simon was appointed by the British Government to address the health problems of the population (community).
In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries began to develop education for healthcare professionals. In 1893, John Hopkins, a whiskey dealer from Baltimore, USA, pioneered the founding of the university and contained the school (faculty) of medicine.
From 1908, medical schools began to spread to Europe, Canada, etc. From the medical school curriculum, public health seems to have been considered. From the second year onwards, students began to conduct science application activities in the community.
The development of the medical school curriculum is based on the assumption that illness and health are the results of dynamic interactions between genetic factors, physical environment, social environment (including working conditions), personal habits and medical services/ Health.
In terms of public health services, in 1855 the U.S. government established the first Ministry of Health. The function of this department is to provide health care for the population (public), including the improvement and supervision of environmental sanitation. In the year 1872 meetings were held for people with public health issues from universities and governments in New York City. The meeting resulted in the American Public Health Association.
History of Community Health development in developing countries
History and development of the public Health Sciences Early Society. Cholera has been noted since the spread of the seventh century from Asia, especially the Middle East and South Asia to Africa. India has been mentioned since the seventh century has been the centre of endemic cholera. In addition, leprosy also had spread from Egypt to Asia Minor and Europe through the emigrants.
In the fourteenth century began to plague the most terrible pes in China and India. In 1340 there were 13 million people who died of a plague outbreak, and in India, Egypt and Gaza were reported that 13,000 people died every day due to the plague of PEs.
According to the record, the number of deaths caused by a plague outbreak around the world at the time reached more than 60 million people. Therefore, at that time it was called "Black Death. " The situation or epidemic of infectious diseases lasted until the 18th century. In addition to the plague of PES, cholera epidemics and typhoid are still ongoing.
It has been noted that in 1603 more than 1 in 6 people died, and in 1663 about 1 in 5 people died of infectious diseases. At 1759, 70,000 inhabitants of the Cypriot island died of infectious diseases. Other diseases that are being epidemic at that time include diphtheria, typhoid, dysentery, etc. World trade during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in the exploration and exploitation of natural resources led to exploration in other parts of the world. European and American countries compete in territorial control. In their efforts to defend their territories, they moved their people from one place to another for military and economic purposes. Thousands of Africans and Asians were brought to America in the 18th and 19th centuries to work in plantations or construct railway constructions. They will then be moved back to India and some Asian countries to work on larger plantations. With the expansion of trade and territorial control, diseases spread throughout the world along trade routes.
To protect the health of people and their workers, the colonial authorities apply laws similar to those in their country. Special public health laws vary according to colonial authorities, but extant traces, such as public health laws, governmental law, civil law, plant law, food counterfeiting laws, food laws vaccinations and Law of infectious diseases remain valid for decades, such as in many countries in Asia, the Pacific, the United States and Africa, such as the former British colonies, Spain, France, America or the Netherlands. The colonial people had launched an important initiative in the prevention and control of international public health through vaccination against smallpox that was initially given to colonial administrative workers and then to workers, not they are skilled.
Religious missionaries from Europe and America also carried out expeditions throughout the world along with the colonial powers. Many of them have history has been noted that in 1603 more than 1 in 6 people died, and in 1663 about 1 in 5 people died of infectious diseases. At 1759, 70,000 inhabitants of the Cypriot island died of infectious diseases. Other diseases that are being epidemic at that time include diphtheria, typhoid, dysentery, etc. World trade during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in the exploration and exploitation of natural resources led to exploration in other parts of the world. European and American countries compete in territorial control. In their efforts to defend their territories, they moved their people from one place to another for military and economic purposes. Thousands of Africans and Asians were brought to America in the 18th and 19th centuries to work in plantations or construct railway constructions. They will then be moved back to India and some Asian countries to work on larger plantations. With the expansion of trade and territorial control, diseases spread throughout the world along trade routes.
To protect the health of people and their workers, the colonial authorities apply laws similar to those in their country. Special public health laws vary according to colonial authorities, but extant traces, such as public health laws, governmental law, civil law, plant law, food counterfeiting laws, food laws vaccinations and Law of infectious diseases remain valid for decades, such as in many countries in Asia, the Pacific, the United States and Africa, such as the former British colonies, Spain, France, America or the Netherlands. The colonial people had launched an important initiative in the prevention and control of international public health through vaccination against smallpox that was initially given to colonial administrative workers and then to workers not They're skilled.
Religious missionaries from Europe and America also carried out expeditions throughout the world along with the colonial powers. Many of them have allopathic medical records, which establish health care institutions and general educational systems, including nursing and medical schools. This missionary initially established a health or pharmaceutical clinic and later became a hospital in the colonial Countries.
At the end of the 18th century there was a growing boost in public health education, namely, the establishment of undergraduate and graduate programs designed specifically for public health, originally in the colony's native countries and then flourished in the colony Their.
However, the actual development of public health services and medical care for the general population has not been perfect in the countries of the former colonies. Millions of people who moved to a truly foreign area had caused a high incidence of death and disability. Displaced workers often die of smallpox, malaria, yellow fever, typhoid, typhoid, and cholera, or are unable to work due to framboesia, leprosy, and syphilis.
Infectious disease outbreak is a huge potential obstacle in the new suburb. This led to an explosion in the development of science and technology in the early twentieth century, mainly in the areas of physics, microbiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, and diagnosis in public health practices.
The colonial Countries saw the end of World War II as the beginning of the late colonial rule. These countries are hoping to build their country towards peace and overcome suffering and deprivation after being freed from colonialism. Reconstruction activities for economic growth and social development are carried out immediately to catch up with the use of technology left in the colonial era.
In the early reconstruction period, the era of contradictions and opportunities were called. It is time to improve prosperity in developed countries, in an effort to alleviate poverty in disadvantaged people around the world. This period is also known as an era of opportunity, that is, look at scientific advances and remarkable technology to open an infinite vantage point and the possibility to solve the ancient problems of poverty and disease (Gunaratne 1977). Various discoveries and innovations during and after World War II provided a major impetus for the application of science and technology, such as jet aircraft, microwave, radar and other telecommunications facilities, including satellites. Mass discovery and production of quinine, Dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), penicillin and sulfonamides, development of new vaccines and effective medicines in preventing and controlling infectious diseases, the introduction of birth control pills and injections, introduction and use of computers, and improvements in imaging technology (X-ray and CT) facilitate sophisticated applications in public health practices. Advances in microbiology and immunology have contributed greatly to the development of vaccines and diagnostic technologies. A remarkable achievement in the field of food and nutrition is the loss of many large scales of hunger.
The greatest success achieved by developing countries in the 20th century is the prevention and control and eradication of smallpox, a terrible infectious disease that has existed since antiquity. As a precautionary measure for public health, the inoculation of pus is taken from the case of smallpox to healthy people, this has been practised in Asia since ancient times. The variation method expanded to Europe and other parts of the world in the 17th century. At the time it was simplified and widely used for the prevention and control of smallpox. In 1796, Edward Jenner introduced variation modification techniques with smallpox vaccines. The scientific community in Europe slowly received the results of this experiment. Then, the period of inoculation with smallpox vaccine material (called vaccinations) is widely introduced, first in the UK and then throughout Europe and other parts of the colonial world. The vaccine material that has been dried on the glass, can be shipped to all corners of the world. The acceptance of this broader mass vaccination has caused smallpox to cease to be a major threat in most European and American countries in the early 20th century (Henderson 1997).
In the early 20th century, France, followed by the Dutch, produced a large number of dried and frozen chickenpox vaccines, which annually were destined for their own colonies in Africa and Asia. The Lister Institute in London has developed lyophilized technology to manufacture vaccines in early 1950. Since then, the stable lyophilized smallpox vaccine has been produced commercially on a large scale and has been expanded to other developed countries and then to countries where the new development is independent.