The somatic system is part of the peripheral nervous system which is responsible for carrying the motor and sensory information well into and from the central nervous system. The system consists of nerves connected to the skin, sensory organs, and all skeletal muscles.
The system is responsible for virtually all voluntary muscle movements as well as for the processing of sensory information that comes through external stimuli including hearing, touch, and vision.
A. Somatic Nervous System Function
Whether you want to learn ballet, throwing balls, or going for jogging, the somatic nervous system plays an important role in starting and controlling your body movements. How exactly does this complex system work? Let's start with a closer look at the key parts of the somatic nervous system.
1. Part of the somatic nervous system
The term "somatic nervous system " itself is taken from the Greek word Soma, which means "body, " as appropriate considering it is this system that transmits information to and from the CNS throughout the body. The somatic nervous system contains two main types of neurons namely:
a. Sensory neurons
Sensory neurons are also known as afferent neurons, responsible for carrying information from the nerves to the central nervous system.
b. Motor neurons
Motor neurons are also known as afferent neurons, responsible for carrying information from the brain and spinal cord to muscle fibres throughout the body.
The neurons that make up the somatic nervous system project out of the central nervous system and are connected directly to the muscles of the body, and carry signals from the muscles and sensory organs to the central nervous system.
The body of the neuron is located in the CNS, and Akon then projects and terminates in the skin, organ flavour, or muscle.
2. Arc reflex and somatic nervous system
In addition to controlling voluntary muscle movements, the somatic nervous system is also associated with uncontrollable movements known as reflex bows. During a reflex bow, muscles move unconsciously not entering from the brain.
This occurs when the neural pathways connect directly to the spinal cord. Some examples of a reflex bow include jerking your hand back after accidentally touching a hot pot or involuntary knee Jerk when your doctor taps in your knees.
You don't have to think about doing this. The sensory nerve carries a signal to the spinal cord, often connected with an interneuron in the spine, and then immediately sends a signal down the neurons of the motor to the muscles that trigger the reflex. A reflex arc that affects an organ called an autonomous arc reflex while those who affect muscle are referred to as somatic bow reflexes.
B. Examples of somatic System in motion
The main function of the somatic nervous system is to connect the central nervous system to the body muscles and control voluntary movements and arc reflexes. Information taken by the sensory system is transmitted to the central nervous system. The SSP then sends signals through the somatic nervous system to the muscles and organs.
For example, imagine that you are out for jogging in a fast winter morning garden. When you run, you see a slick plot looking for ice on the front road. Your visual system senses the ice patches and relays this information to your brain. Your brain then sends signals to involve your muscles to take action. Thanks to your somatic system, you can transform your body and move to different parts of the road, successfully avoiding the ice patches and preventing the falling may be dangerous on the hard sidewalk.