Speaking education is speaking beliefs, views and ideas, about life and human life from generation to generation, the term use of "Islamic education" or the addition of an Islamic word behind the word "education" in this study To commit that Islamic education cannot be understood to be limited only to "Islamic teaching" given the success of Islamic education is not sufficiently measured in terms of how far the child is mastering the things that are cognitive or knowledge Religion or the forms of religious rituals alone. Precisely what is more important is how far embedded religious values are in the soul and how far also the values are in the attitude and behaviour of daily practice.
Departing from this phenomenon is interesting for the next review needs to be explained how the concept of Islamic education in the frame of understanding, function and purpose of Islamic education itself:
Definition of Islamic Education
It departs from the thought that a business that does not have a purpose will not have any meaning. In the same way, a person travelling is not so much the result is no more than experience during the trip. Basically education is a business that is done so that in its application it does not lose direction and footing. But before entering the discussion on the function and objectives of Islamic education first need to explain what the understanding of Islamic education.
The definition of Islamic education is a process done to create the whole human beings; Believers and fear Allah to God and able to realize his existence as the Caliph of Allah on the Earth, based on the teachings of the Qur'an and Sunnah, then the purpose in this context is the creation of the human Kamil after the study ended.
Prof. H. Muhamad Daud Ali, S.H. argues that the establishment is a conscious effort made by humans to develop other humans potential or to move its values to others in society. The process of transferring the value can be done in various ways, among them, the first through teaching that is the process of transferring the form of (science) knowledge from a teacher to his disciples of a generation of generations next. The second through training carried out by way of familiarizing someone doing a certain job to acquire the skills of doing the job. Third, through Indoctrinrice held so that people mimic or follow what other people teach without letting the recipient question the values being taught.
Sometimes if you want to discuss Islam in education is a very interesting thing especially in relation to the development efforts of the Muslim human resources, as Islam is understood as the position of life that is believed to be absolute The truth will be to merai the ethical direction and foundations and moral education, or in other words the relationship between Islam and the education of two sides of the currency. That is, Islam and education has a very basic philosophical relationship both ontologically, epistemological and Axiologist.
The above thought is in line with the philosophy that a business that does not have a purpose will not have any meaning. Ibarat someone who travelled not necessarily the direction then the result is nothing more than a travel diving experience. Basically, education is a business that is done so that in its application it does not lose direction and massage. But before entering the discussion on the function and objectives of Islamic education first need to explain what the understanding of Islamic education itself.
Zarqawi Soejati in his laboratory titled "Islamic College Models" presented Islamic education at least three understandings. First The Islamic educational institution's establishment and its implementation is driven by the desire to embody Islamic values that are reflected in the name of the education and the activities held. Second Educational institutions pay attention and conduct a study on Islam that is reflected in the program as a science that is like other sciences that are in the study program of the Islamic institution concerned. Third Contains both of the above meanings in the sense that the institution treats Islam as a source of value for attitudes and behaviours that must be reflected in its implementation, as well as the field of the study, reflected in the course program.
The concept of Islamic education as Zarkowi Soejati presented, impressed simple and not too broad coverage, but at least this the concept can be applied in efforts to increase human resources through the reflection of organizing Education and an Islamic-inspired study program in the process of transferring values that are owned and can be brought to the community.
Another opinion says that the understanding of Islamic education is a process that is done to create the whole people: faith and fear of God and able to realize its existence as the caliph of Allah on the Earth, which is based on the teachings of the Qur'an and As-Sunnah, then the purpose and context is the creation of the whole human "Insan Kamil", after the education process ended.
Then Islamic education is an education that is capable of preparing cadres of the caliph so that functionally the existence of the main role of a world order that Rahmatan Lil-' Alamin. Added again that Islamic education is a universe-oriented education, an insightful and multi-dimensional life, which includes insight into God, man and nature integratively.
2. Objectives and Function of Islamic Education
Before further explaining the objectives of Islamic education first what exactly is the meaning of the "purpose". Etymologically The purpose is "direction, intent or bow." Terminological purpose means that something is expected to be achieved after a business or activity is completed. By H.M, Arifin mentions that the purpose of the Islamic education process is "ideality (ideals) that contain Islamic values that are to be achieved in the process of education that is based on Islamic teachings gradually.
So in general, the objective of Islamic education is divided into first general purpose is to be achieved with all educational activities either teaching or in other ways. Secondly, the temporary goal is the goal that will be achieved after students are given a certain number of in planned in a curriculum. Third, the final goal is the desired goal so that the students become the perfect man (human Kamil) after he finishes the rest of his life. While all four operational objectives are practical objectives that will be achieved with a number of educational activities are well-educated.
Meanwhile, in the First International Conference on Islamic Education in Mecca in 1977 formulated the objectives of Islamic education as follows:
"Education aims to achieve a thorough growth of human personality in a balanced manner through mental practice, intellect, rational human self; Feelings and senses. Education must, therefore, include human growth in all aspects of it; Spiritual, intellectual, imaginative, physical, scientific, language, both individually and collectively, and encourages all these aspects toward goodness to attain perfection. The ultimate goal of Muslim education lies in the embodiment of the perfect subjection to God both personally, the community, and all mankind. "
The concept above is in line with the objective of Islamic education objectives, namely to improve the faith, understanding, passion and experience of the children about Islam, so that it becomes a Muslim man who believes and fear Allah to Allah SWT and noble morality in Personal life, society, nation, and state. So in this context, Islamic education must always orient itself to answer the needs and challenges that arise in our society as the logical consequences of change.
It can also be said that the purpose of Islamic education is a Muslim personality, that is, a personality whose whole aspect is imbued by Islamic teachings. People in the Muslim personality in the Qur'an are called "Muttaqin" therefore Islamic education means the establishment of human beings, as the concept of national education that is poured in the purpose of national education that will form Pancasilais people who fear the Almighty God.
Thus, if the reconstruction is done, then according to Islam, human-controlled science is a combination of the sciences that are obtained by human beings through the universe with the science that is sent by the revelation that can be captured by the Prophets and Apostles. In the perspective of Islamic education that prepares human beings to be able to do its role, both as a caliph or as ' Abd, the science that must be demanded is a science that is integrated and this is the characteristic of Islamic education.
Judging from the educational objectives above, it is itself implicitly the function of Islamic education. It can mean the function of Islamic education is to maintain the integrity of the individual elements of the students by optimizing their potential in the line of Allah, as well as optimizing their development to survive the skill aspect Each child. Islamic education is an open education. It means that Islam recognizes the differences, but the inherent difference is determined by the latter. Therefore, Islamic education is essentially open, democratic, and universal.
In short, Islamic education is ideally functioned to build and prepare children in the family including students who are knowledgeable, technologically, high skills and also believers and righteous deeds. Therefore, the description of Islamic educational material not only revolves around the things related to the problem the typical Ubudiyah problem (special) such as prayer, fasting, zakat, Hajj etc., but the more general and wider Ubudiyah, namely Development of social sciences so that children can interact with the environment well as well as the development of knowledge and technology that is very beneficial in improving the standards of life and welfare.
Thus education bears the mission of all aspects of life needs and the changes that occur. As a result of logic, education has always invited both conceptual and practical thoughts and studies. Thus gained relevance and ability to answer challenges and to shed problems faced by Muslims.