Teachers are faced with a constant sequence of methodologies that promise to improve teaching and learning strategies. A lot of research from cognitive psychology and education has found how thinking and learning can be improved in class.
Principles of Student Psychology learning
Below is explained about the principles of psychology and potential applications to be used in teaching students in classrooms.
1. The development of the mindset
Students ' beliefs or perceptions of intelligence and ability affect their function and cognitive learning.
Research shows that students holding mindsets develop that intelligence can be forged, and success related to the level of effort is more likely to remain focused on the goal and persist despite a setback. A great way to start this year in the psychology class is with a discussion of growth versus a fixed mindset because it helps students understand how their beliefs about intelligence can affect their academic success Own.
2. Early student knowledge
What students already know affects their learning. Research shows that previous knowledge affects conceptual growth and conceptual change in students. With conceptual growth, students add to their existing knowledge, and with the conceptual change, students correct misunderstandings or mistakes in existing knowledge. Facilitating growth or conceptual change requires first gaining a basic level of student knowledge before starting each unit through a formative assessment.
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One way to assess previous knowledge involves starting a unit with a shortlist of five to ten true or false statements and discussing class about the outcome. The results of this discussion can guide the selection of assignments and activities that are appropriate to facilitate conceptual growth or conceptual change. Prior knowledge can be used to help students incorporate background knowledge and pull connections between units during the course.
3. Not limiting student knowledge
The curriculum of psychology should highlight the importance of Lev Vygotsky's theory of the proximal developmental zone and the vital role that interacts with those who are better able to learning and growth. Instructors can use this research to facilitate learning by designing instructions that use grouping, differentiation and grouping of mixed abilities. It is also important that the most advanced students have the opportunity to work with others who will challenge them, including other students or instructors.
4. Contextual Learning
Learning is based on context, so generalizing learning to a new context is not spontaneous, but it needs to be facilitated.
Student growth and deeper learning are developed when the instructor helps students transfer learning from one context to another. Students will also be better able to generalize learning into a new context if the instructor invests time to focus on deeper learning. One method to develop these skills is to make students use their understanding of specific units to produce potential solutions to real-world problems.
Gaining long-term knowledge and skills is highly dependent on practice. This principle specifies an empirical-based strategy that will help students more effectively encode the material learned into long-term memory. In addition to those in the memory unit, examples of these principles can help inform instructions during the course.
Clear, clear and timely feedback to students is important for learning. This principle highlights the importance of instructor responses and demonstrates the best way to provide feedback to students to maintain or improve learning motivation. Giving students clear, clear and timely feedback is important for learning. The CPSE publication titled "Using Class Data to give students systematic feedback to improve learning" provides additional information about the feedback method including five key strategies.
Teachers can model organizational methods and help students by highlighting learning targets at the beginning and end of the lesson, using class calendars, highlighting difficult concepts that will require more practice, breaking down large projects Be a manageable component, using a well-designed rubric and allowing sufficient processing time through questioning, summarizing and practising.
Creativity is considered an essential skill for a world driven by 21st-century technology and therefore not a stable trait, it can be taught, nurtured, and improved. This principle describes a special method of setup assignments to improve creativity and ideas on how to model a creative problem-solving. Creativity in the psychology class can include opportunities for student-designed research projects, video projects, demonstrations and model building.
9. Intrinsic motivation
Students tend to enjoy learning and doing better when they are more intrinsically motivated than motivated to achieve. This principle is geared towards how instructors can increase intrinsic motivation through practice in classrooms and activities that support the fundamental needs of students to feel independent. It is important to note that not all of the important motivations are intrinsically for all students and that there is a place for extrinsic motivation in education.
During the unit about motivation, when intrinsic and extrinsic motivation is usually discussed, students can examine their personal motivation and how they influence their success. Lastly, students can examine research related to the effect of overjustification, also discussed in this principle.
10. Teacher Expectations
Teacher expectations about their students influence students ' opportunities to learn, their motivation, and their learning outcomes.
The belief that teachers have about their students affects the opportunities of students to learn, their motivation and their learning outcomes. Psychological research has found a way for teachers to communicate high expectations for all students and avoid creating negative self-fulfilment prophecies. When discussing its own full predictions and Rosenthal and Jacobson studies during the social.